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Scar

A scar is a biological process of wound repair that forms when a thick layer of skin is damaged. After an injury, the body creates a scar when new collagen fibers are formed to mend the damage. Although scars cannot be completely removed, their appearance can be improved upon by treatments such as surgery or dermabrasion.

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Sciatica

Inflammation and irritation of the sciatic nerve, a nerve that runs down the back of each thigh. This nerve arises from the lower spine and runs into the pelvis and lower buttocks area. From there, it passes along the back of each thigh and branches at the knee.

Causes
Sciatica can be caused by anything that puts irritation on the sciatic nerve. Such conditions can include a herniated disc, slippage of a bone in the lower back area, disk degeneration, infections and blood clots.

Symptoms
Sciatica typically causes pain that shoots down the back of one thigh or buttock. This pain is often characterized by burning, tingling, or numbness on one side of the leg. Difficulty walking, fever and loss of bladder and bowel control can also occur.

Treatment Procedures
Treatment procedures for sciatica can include nonsurgical procedures such as pain medications, physical therapy and alternative therapy techniques such as acupuncture.

Surgery may be done to relieve pressure on the sciatic nerve. Common surgical procedures are microdiskectomy and lumbar laminectomy.

Sciatica
Medical Terms | Rue, Ziffra & Caldwell
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Septic Shock (Septicemia)

A form of shock that occurs when certain toxins are released from bacteria in the bloodstream, resulting in a dramatic and dangerous fall in blood pressure.

Causes
Septic shock is caused by a condition known as sepsis, where a person’s immune system may fail to ward off infection. Sepsis can be triggered by certain types of infections such as bacterial, viral and parasitic.

Symptoms
Septic shock is most typically characterized by a drop in blood pressure and decrease vascular resistance. Other symptoms can include fever, increased respirations, coma, kidney or lung failure and blood clots.

Treatment Procedures
The initial treatment for septic shock is to try and increase an individual’s blood flow, which can be done through the use of extra oxygen, IV fluids and medication.

Once the cause of the infection is properly identified through a series of blood tests, antibiotics geared towards fighting that specific problem is administered.

If the condition is severe, surgery may be required in order to remove any dead tissue that may be the cause of the infection.

Septic Shock (Septicemia)
Medical Terms | Rue, Ziffra & Caldwell
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Shoulder Labral Tear

An injury characterized by a tear to the cartilage in the shoulder joint. This cartilage is located within the socket of the shoulder (glenoid) that connects to the end of the arm bone.

Causes
A shoulder labral tear can occur from direct impact to the shoulder, such as falling abnormally on it or absorbing a blow to it, repetitive movements to the shoulder that cause long term wear and lifting heavy objects.

Symptoms
A shoulder labral tear can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder and arm, loss of range of motion in the shoulder and a popping or grinding sensation that occurs with arm movement.

Treatment Procedures
For less severe tears, nonsurgical treatments can be used to heal a shoulder labral tear. This includes using anti-inflammatory drugs, rest, heat and physical therapy to relieve pain and help increase muscle strength to the affected area.

For severe tears, a surgical procedure called arthroscopy can be used to either remove torn cartilage or sew the torn pieces together.

Shoulder Labral Tear (Glenoid Labrum Tear)
Medical Terms | Rue, Ziffra & Caldwell
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Skull Fracture

A break in the structure of one or more of the bones that make up the head and face.

There are two major types of skull fractures:

Open skull fracture – An injury to the skull or face where part of the scalp is torn or broken. In general, an open fracture is characterized by exposed bone sticking out through the skin.
Closed skull fracture – An injury to the skull or face where the scalp may be damaged but remains intact.
Causes
A skull fracture is caused by injury, where some sort of trauma was exerted on the skull or face. Such trauma is usually from a direct blow to the area, such as that incurred during certain sport physical activities and falls. Often, skull fractures result from motorcycle accidents, where an individual receives direct trauma to the head if involved in a crash. Motorcycle crashes, along with other types of crashes where an individual’s body is exposed (such as a bicycle accident) can prove deadly if an individual receives a skull fracture that affects the spinal cord or results in a brain injury.

Symptoms
Symptoms of a skull fracture can change depending on the area that is injured. Injury may be caused to the brain, resulting in dizziness, leaking fluid, blood loss and paralysis of the limbs. Injury may also extend to the facial skull area, which may cause cosmetic and sensory damages.

Treatment Procedures
Since skull fractures (and mostly all head injuries) can be subject to severe and deadly damages, the injured person will most likely be taken to the hospital for scans and tests. Depending on the type of injury, a person may undergo surgery to relieve pressure on the brain or fix broken bones in the face or skull. Surgery may take place right away or after swelling subsides, again depending on the injury.

Skull Fracture
Medical Terms | Rue, Ziffra & Caldwell

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