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Kaposi’s Sarcoma

A form of skin cancer frequently seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The condition consists of brownish-purple papules that spread from the skin and metastasize to internal organs.

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Keloid

A firm, raised area of skin that develops when scar tissue from a healing injury develops beyond the affected area. This results in a growth that can vary in size from one to several inches. Although its appearance is not always welcome, a keloid does not impose any harm on the body.

Causes
If an individual has suffered an injury or cut after direct trauma (such as being in a motorcycle accident) the wound may heal with a keloid. This is becuase, sometimes, scar tissue begins to form in an uncontrolled manner, where proteins continue to multiply even after the wound has been covered.

Symptoms
An individual with a keloid may experience itching, burning or tenderness to the affected area.

Treatment Procedures
Many keloids will dissolve on their own. However, surgical procedures, cortisone injections and radiation therapy are common treatments used to get rid of re-occuring keloids.

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Keratoma

A type of noncancerous tumor found in the middle section of the ear behind the eardrum. Also known as Cholesteatoma, this condition forms when an ear has been punctured, and the skin begins to grow through the hole in the middle ear.

Keratoma growths can cause damage to the ears and hearing problems. The tumors may also cause nerve damage, hearing loss, deafness, dizziness, and balance problems.

Keratoma must be treated by a medical physician in its early stages to ensure the best outcome. Serious complications may occur if the tumor goes untreated, including destruction of both the middle ear structures causing hearing loss, and inner ear structures causing vertigo.

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Knee Sprain

The stretching or tearing of the ligaments (strong bands of tissue that connect bones together) that support the knee.

Causes,br />

Intense pressure to the knee area, such as being in a car accident or suffering a sports injury, is the most common cause of a knee sprain. In these situations, an individual will usually exert too much force on his or her knee, such as twisting it in the wrong direction, stopping suddenly or landing on the knee in an awkward position.

Symptoms
A knee sprain can cause such symptoms as pain, swelling, tenderness and limited range of motion of the knee. Knee sprains are graded according to their severity:

  • Grade 1 – Stretching and microtearing of ligament tissue
  • Grade 2 – Partial tearing of ligament tissue
  • Grade 3 – Severe or complete tearing of ligament tissue

Treatment Procedures
Many knee sprains can heal on their own, without the help of surgery. If this is the case, patients are typically advised to rest, elevate the affected leg, use a knee brace and undergo physical therapy treatment to strengthen the muscles around the injured ligament.

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Kneecap Fracture

An injury characterized by a break in the patella, the large bone at the front of the knee (which is a part of the knee joint). It protects the front of the knee joint and acts as a point of support, providing increased power to the thigh muscles, which extend the knee.

Causes
A kneecap fracture is a common result of an automobile accident and motorcycle accident, where individuals receive direct impact to their kneecap. The pressure exerted on an individual must be enough to cause it to break. Other causes of a kneecap fracture include prolonged use of the knee, such as with contact sports.

Symptoms
Intense pain in the kneecap, swelling of the knee and inability to move or extend the knee are symptoms of a broken kneecap.

Treatment Procedures
Physicians will perform tests and take MRI’s and scans of the knee to determine if there is a fracture. If so, the doctor will perform surgery to fix the problem.

Two types of surgery used to fix a kneecap fracture include:

  • Open reduction-internal fixation surgery —The doctor uses pins and screws to put the broken pieces back together.
  • Patellectomy—The doctor removes part of the kneecap or the entire kneecap.
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