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Facetectomy

An invasive, surgical procedure performed to decompress a spinal nerve root. The procedure involves exposing the affected vertebra and removing one or both facet joints that are rubbing against the nerve. Each vertebra contains two facet joints that allow for spine mobility. They help a person bend forward, stand straight, and rotate left and right. Serious injuries to the spine and age-related degenerative disorders are the main causes of facet problems. If cartilage tissue around the joints erodes or tears, the bones may rub together and compress underlying nerves. The goal of facetectomy is to completely remove one or more facets in order to preserve nerve functioning.

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Fasciotomy

A surgical procedure used to treat compartment syndrome. The procedure consists of cutting open the thick bands of the affected compartment (enclosed spaces in the body that hold muscles, nerves, and blood vessels) allowing the muscles to swell and pressure to be released.

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Femur Fracture

A condition where the femur, or thigh bone, is broken. The femur extends from the pelvis to the knee and is the longest and strongest bone in the body.

Causes
Since the femur is among the strongest bones in the body, it usually required a great deal of force in order to break it. Therefore, femur fractures are typically caused by direct blows, twists and falls to the femur bone. A common cause of a femur fracture results from injury sustained in an automobile accident or motorcycle accident, where an individual is exposed to amounts of high exertion to the thigh.

Symptoms
Severe pain, swelling, inability to walk and deformity of the leg are common symptoms associated with a femur fracture.

Treatment Procedures
Like other fractures, treatment can depend on the severity of the injury. If the femur is broken completely, surgery may be needed to put the bone back into position. Physical therapy and other exercises can also be used to strengthen the muscles around the injury.

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Fibromyalgia

A complex, chronic form of nonarticular rheumatism that causes pain to the affected area.

Causes
There is no known exact cause of fibromyalgia. Factors that may trigger or worsen the condition may include overexertion, anxiety and medical illness.

Symptoms
Fibromyalgia is closely associated with pain and stiffness in the muscles and ligaments of the lower back, neck, shoulder, arms, hands, knees and legs. Pain is caused by a greater sensitivity to sensory stimuli. Other symptoms, such as poor sleep, numbness, headaches and fatigue. This condition is different from many other, similar rheumatic conditions, however, since the muscles that are sore are not accompanied by tissue inflammation. Therefore, even though a person may experience potentially disabling body pain, they do not develop any type of body damage or deformity.

Treatment Procedures
To first diagnose that a person has fibromyalgia certain procedures and blood tests are taken. Since a specific cause cannot be traced to this condition, these tests are performed to exclude other possible diagnoses (including ones that mimic fibromyalgia). Since the symptoms of fibromyalgia can vary among patients, treatment must be customized for each person suffering from it. Also, treatment programs are found to be most effective when they combine certain remedies, such as stress reduction techniques, regular exercise programs and medications to treat pain or even depression.

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Finger Fracture

A condition where there is a break in any of the bones in the fingers. Fingers are constructed of ligaments (strong supportive tissue connecting bone to bone), tendons (attachment tissue from muscle to bone), and three bones called phalanges.

The three bones in each finger are named according to their relationship to the palm of the hand. The first bone, closest to the palm, is the proximal phalange; the second bone is the middle phalange; and the smallest and farthest from the hand is the distal phalange. The thumb does not have a middle phalange.

Causes
Because fingers are used for many everyday activities, they are at higher risk than other parts of the body for traumatic injury. Some causes of finger fractures stem from trauma to the finger, such as direct blows, falls and twists.

Another common cause of a finger fracture results from injury sustained in an automobile accident or motorcycle accident, where an individual is exposed to amounts of high exertion to the hand.

Symptoms
Mild to moderate pain, swelling, bruising, inability to move the finger and deformity at the injury site are common symptoms of a finger fracture.

Treatment Procedures
Typical finger fractures can actually be fixed by having a doctor put the bones back into place without using surgery. However, more severe fractures may need the help of pins, screws or plates to hold the bone together. Most finger fractures require the injured individual to wear a split for a period of time in order to keep the finger immobilized.

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