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Echocardiogram

A non-invasive medical treatment that uses sound waves to look at various characteristics of the heart (such as shape and motion). During the procedure, a small, hand-held device is held against an individual’s chest. The device directs sounds waves towards the heart, which are reflected back to the device in the form of electrical impulses. These impulses can then be seen on an ultrasound screen, forming a picture of the heart.

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Elbow Fracture

A break in one or more of the bones that make up the elbow joint. The joint consists of three bones:

  • Humerus—the upper arm bone
  • Ulna—the lower arm bone
  • Radius—the smaller forearm bone

Causes
Causes of an elbow fracture stem from trauma to the area itself, including falling on an outstretched arm, twisting the joint beyond its normal range of motion and experiencing a direct blow to the area. A common cause of an elbow fracture results from injury sustained in an automobile accident or motorcycle accident, where an individual is exposed to amounts of high exertion to the elbow and arm.

Symptoms
Symptoms of an elbow fracture can include pain, swelling of the injured area, deformity over the injured area and numbness in fingers and arms.

Treatment Procedures
Like other fractures, treatment can depend on the severity of the injury. If any of the elbow bones are broken completely, surgery may be needed to put the bones back into position. Physical therapy and other exercises can also be used to strengthen the muscles around the injury.

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Electrocardiogram (EKG)

A non-invasive test that gives an electrical recording of the heart by translating its electrical activity into line tracings on paper. The test is performed by a nurse, who places small electrode pads to a patient’s chest and arms and records the heart’s activity.

The EKG is a helpful tool in that it can provide information about a person’s past heart activity, present conditions with the heart, and problems with the conduction of the electrical current provided by the EKG machine.

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Electroencephalogram (EEG)

A non-invasive test that gives an electrical recording of the brain by translating its electrical activity into line tracings on paper. The test is performed by a nurse, who places small electrode pads to a patients scalp and records the brain’s activity.

The EEG is a helpful tool in that it can provide information about a person’s present brain activity and any problems associated with it, complications with a person’s brain activity during surgical procedures and chances of a person developing certain illnesses such as dementia.

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Encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain, typically resulting from a viral infection. This condition occurs in two forms:

  • Primary encephalitis – direct viral infection of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Secondary encephalitis – indirect viral infection that first occurs elsewhere in the body but eventually travels to the brain.

Causes
Most cases of encephalitis are caused by a viral infection, but they can also be caused by other certain diseases that result in an inflammation of the brain.

Symptoms
Symptoms of encephalitis include a sudden onset of fever, headache, nausea, visual complications, stiff neck and back, drowsiness, seizures and muscle weakness.

Treatment Procedures
Treatment procedures can include taking anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, medications to control brain swelling and pressure and fluid replacement techniques.

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