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Baker’s Cyst

A condition characterized by the swelling of the knee joint, producing a fluid-filled bulge on the back of the knee.

Causes
A baker’s cyst occurs from any condition that causes the knee to swell and produce too much fluid. When this excess of fluid is compressed within the knee joint, it can become trapped and separate from the joint to form the fluid-filled sac.

Conditions that may prompt this production of fluid can stem from arthritis or a cartilage tear within the knee joint.

Symptoms
In some instances, a Baker cyst may cause no symptoms. However, they are most often associated with pain and tightness behind the knee, especially when it is extended. Typically, a bulge will appear behind the knee and are soft and minimally tender to the touch.

Treatment Procedures
Treatment of a Baker cyst often involves the removal of excess knee fluid from the injured area. Medications and injections may also be given to relieve pain and inflammation.

If the cyst is a result of a cartilage tear or other knee problem, surgery can be used to remove the swollen tissue causing the cyst formation.

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Balloon Angioplasty

A surgical procedure used to unblock clogged coronary arteries by inflating a balloon-tipped catheter in the blocked area. When the balloon is inflated, the plaque buildup is pushed to the sides of the artery wall, widening the area to increase blood flow.

Sometimes a doctor may place a stent (a small, expandable wire tube) into the artery, which is permanently pushed into place when the balloon expands.

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Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, which is named for the basal cells that lie at the base of the outer layer of skin. This type of cancer typically grows slowly and usually does not spread to other tissues in the body.

Causes
The primary cause of basal cell carcinoma is said to be prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. This is often the case when individuals are exposed to the sun—particularly over a period of time. Recent studies have also shown that this type of cancer growth can more likely result from a combination of sun exposure and genes specific to the individual.

Symptoms
Common symptoms an individual with basal cell carcinoma can have include a sore at the infected site, (that may crust and bleed to the touch without showing signs of change or healing) a red, itchy bump at the infected site or a pink-colored growth characterized by a slightly raised border and dip in the middle.

Treatment Procedures
There are many different treatment procedures for patients with basal cell carcinoma, depending on the severity of the infected area. For minor growths, a physician can use liquid nitrogen to freeze it or perform a simple surgery procedure to remove it.

For deeper, more severe growths, a doctor may recommend a procedure called Mohs micrographic surgery or radiation therapy that both offer a controlled type of treatment offering a better cure rate for the patient.

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Bed Sore

A bed sore (also known as a pressure sore) is a lesion that develops on both the outer surface of the skin and on its underlying tissues. It is mostly commonly due to a prolonged amount of pressure applied to the skin usually over a bony prominence.

As a result, when skin and the tissues underneath are compressed over a bone for an extended period from hours to days, blood supply can be cut off, leading to the development of a bed sore.

Patients in nursing homes and health care facilities are often subjected to bed sores, as they are usually limited in their range of motion and spend a majority of the day lying or sitting. If a facility or provider fails to provide a patient with proper care, resulting in one or multiple bed sores, they may be liable under a medical malpractice claim.

Causes
Bed sores can result from lying or sitting in one position for an extended period of time. This is because prolonged pressure from lying or sitting eventually cuts off the blood supply to tissues that are compressed between a bony area and a mattress, chair, or other object. Without this normal blood flow, the tissue is deprived of oxygen and nutrients and starts to die.

Along with prolonged pressure to an area of the body, bed sores can also result from such factors as:

  • Poor nutrition
  • Obesity
  • Friction

Symptoms
Bed sores can range from mild skin irritation, where the skin develops red, swollen patches, to severe, blistering sores. In most cases, individuals will experience a discoloration of skin over the bony area that has been affected. Such symptoms as pain and itching may also be present.

Treatment Procedures
If an individual suspects that they have a bed sore, they should take action to try and relieve the pressure from the affected area. If the area remains red and swollen for at least 30 minutes after the pressure has been removed, the skin will likely break down and start to blister.

At this stage, treatment is recommended to heal the wound and prevent future pressure sores. If the wound is not properly treated for in a timely manner, it can deepen and extend through fat and muscle to the bone. It can later become infected and potentially progress to gangrene.

To treat a sever bed sore, a doctor may surgically remove the dead tissue and use skin grafts to repair the wound (if it was deep). In some situations, electrotherapy may be used to stimulate blood flow and promote healing. To help prevent future bed sores from forming, a nurse or care provider should change the position of the patient at least every two hours, keep the patient clean and provide the patient with vitamins and supplements for good nutrition.

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Bicipital Tendinopathy

Tendinopathy is the medical term for an injury to the tendon. Common forms of bicipital tendinopathy include:

  • Tendonitis—an inflammation of the tendon
  • Tendinosis—small tears in the tendon tissue characterized by no significant signs of inflammation

Causes
Bicipital tendinopathy is generally caused by overuse of a muscle-tendon unit. Over time, the strain on the tendon causes structural changes within the tendon itself. For example, shoulder tendons are overused most often with repeated reaching overhead or repeated throwing.

Symptoms
A person with bicipital tendinopathy may experience such symptoms as a dull pain (typically in the shoulder and upper arm) shoulder weakness and stiffness in the affected area.

Pain will typically start off slow, but gradually worsen over time and with use.

Treatment Procedures
For minor cases of bicipital tendinopathy, the individual can use simply remedies such as ice, heat and avoiding certain activities to control the pain. A doctor may also prescribe certain pain medications and/or steroid injections depending on the patient’s situation.

In more severe cases, surgical procedures like arthroscopic surgery may be needed to repair the damaged tendon. In this case, the individual will often have to perform physical therapy techniques to strengthen the weakened muscles around the affected area.

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