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Joint Liability

When two or more persons are both responsible for a debt, claim or judgment. It can be important to the person making the claim, as well as to a person who is sued, who can demand that anyone with joint liability for the alleged debt or claim for damages be joined in (brought into) the lawsuit.

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Judge

An official with the authority and responsibility to preside in a court, try lawsuits and make legal rulings. Judges of courts established by a state at the county, district, city or township level, gain office by election, by appointment by the Governor or by some judicial selection process in case of a vacancy.

Federal judges are appointed for life by the President of the United States with confirmation by the U.S. Senate. A senator of the same party as the President has considerable clout in recommending Federal judges from his/her home state.

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Judgment

The determination of a court of competent jurisdiction upon matters submitted to it. A final determination of the rights of the parties to a lawsuit.

Types of Judgment include:
Default Judgment – A judgment entered on behalf of a plaintiff when the defendant defaults, or fails to appear in the proceeding.

Final Judgment – A Judgment conclusively determining the rights of the parties and disposing of the entire controversy before the court, or of some separable portion thereof, so that, immediately after the judgment or an appeal there from is rendered, the only judicial business that remains is enforcement of that judgment.

Judgment on the Merits – Judgment rendered through analysis and adjudication of the factual issues presented, rather than by the existence of a technical or procedural defect that requires one party to prevail. A judgment on the merits is binding and issues so adjudged become subject to the force of res judicata and collateral estoppels. Judgments not rendered on the merits are frequently considered dismissed without prejudice so that the factual issues may eventually be decided upon.

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Judgement on The Merits

Judgment rendered through analysis and adjudication of the factual issues presented, rather than by the existence of a technical or procedural defect that requires one party to prevail. A judgment on the merits is binding and issues so adjudged become subject to the force of res judicata and collateral estoppels. Judgments not rendered on the merits are frequently considered dismissed without prejudice so that the factual issues may eventually be decided upon.

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